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THE CHRONOLOGY OF THE LIFE OF PROPHET MUHAMMAD

07.08.2014 1:29 PM views: 7369 HISTORY Pavel Gusterin
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Pavel V. Gusterin

Center for Asia and the Middle East of The Russian Institute for Strategic Studies (RISS)

 The proposed "Chronology of the life of the Prophet Muhammad" is an attempt to reconstruct the sequence of the most important events in the life of the founder of Islam with the greatest possible precision. Without claiming to be exhaustive, "Chronology" is intended to draw attention to the need to establish the most accurate and at the same time an objective biography of the Prophet Muhammad in the Islamic studies, that is, complying the chronology without burdening it with outlining the discrepancies, speculating on biographers hypotheses and on the facts that are not in the acknowledgment.

   The works of the most prominent researchers of the Koran Islam and the Prophet Muhammad's life has been used in compiling of the "Chronology"

570, May 14 - was born in Mecca (father - Abdullah Bin-Abd-al-Muttalib of  Banu-family line  from the  Quraysh tribe - died before Muhammad's birth and his mother - Amina bint Wahb-bin Abd Manaf of Banu-Zohra  family line, from the Quraysh tribe).

570-575 - Muhammad was raised by the nurse Halima bint Abu Zuveyb-Abdullah-bin-al-Harith of Banu Saad family line, from the Hawazin tribe.

576 - Amina Abve died on the way back to Mecca from Yathrib, where she visited the tomb of her husband Abdullah. The slave Umm Ayman brought Muhammad to his paternal grandfather Abd al-Muttalib.

577 - Abd al-Muttalib, who raised his grandson after the death of Amina died.  Muhammad`s paternal uncle Abd Manaf known as Abu Talib (the future Ali`s father (born in 597) took care of the child. Ali bin Abu Talib al-Murtada - future son-in-law of the Prophet, the fourth righteous Caliph of Sunni and the first imam Shiites, whom Shiites also consider to be the first Muslim).

582 – Muhammad and Abu Talib traveled to Busra (Syria), where a soothsayer told the Quraysh, that the prophet was among them.

590 - Muhammad took part in the battle between the combined forces of the Quraysh and Kinanit tribes on one side, and Havazinit tribe - on the other, which happened in the small town near Mecca, giving the arrows to his paternal uncles (the fourth and final battle during the "War of lawlessness" ("Harb al-fidzhar "), so named because it took place in the forbidden for the bloodshed time of the year).

594 - Widow Khadija bint Huveylid ben Asad from the Quraysh tribe took Muhammad to the trading service. Muhammad honesty earned the by-name "al-Amin" ("Reliable").

595 - Muhammad's marriage to Khadija (it was the third marriage for her).

596-604 - The birth of Muhammad's and Khadijah's son - al-Qasim, Muhammad came to be called Abul-Qasim.  Early death of a child (the same fate befell the second son of Muhammad and Khadijah Abdullah). Birth of Muhammad's and Khadija's daughters Zainab, Rukeyi and Umm Kulthum.

605 - Muhammad took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba, he was first to enter it after the construction. The birth of Muhammad and Khadija's daughter Fatima (Ali's future wife).

608-610 - Muhammad married his daughter Zeinab to Abul-As-Lakit-bin-al-Rabi (Khadija's first cousin once removed), and daughters Rukeyyu and Umm Kulthum - for his cousins, the sons of Abu Lahab Abdaluzza-bin -Abdalmuttaliba (after Muhammad started preaching Islam, they were divorced at the request of Abu Lahab, who rejected Islam). Muhammad liberated and adopted the slave Zaid-bin-al-Haris tribe Kyalb. Muhammad took Ali on education because of the difficult financial situation of Abu Talib.

610, August 10 - The behest of Archangel Gabriel to the Prophet during the seclusion in a cave on Mount Hira (now - Jabal-en-Nur, meaning "Mountain of Light") on the "Night of Power" ("Laylat al-Qadar") from 20 to 21 of Ramadan. The start of preaching of Islam by the Prophet with the appeal to the Meccans from the hilltop Es Safa, which despised Abu Lahab. Khadija was the first Muslim who received the by-name "al-Tahir" ("Pure soul").

614 - The preaching of the Prophet went beyond the Banu Hashim, and became widespread. The Prophet married his daughter to Rukeyyu Usman bin Affan of Banu Abdshams family line from the Quraysh  tribe ( he earned the by-name " Zunn-Nouréini", ie, "The owner of two lights" for being married to the  two daughters of Muhammad. Usman is the third future righteous caliph of Sunnis, codified in 653 in the text of the Koran). Aisha, the third and favorite wife of the Prophet was born, Aisha bint Abu Bakr bin Usmanof  Banu- Thame family line from the Quraysh tribe (Abu Bakr, Uthman bin al-Siddiq - the future first righteous Caliph Sunnis, who consider to be the first Muslim).

619, February - Abu Talib,who was reassurance to the Prophet in all his endeavors died.  A

619, May 2 - Khadija died (during her lifetime - the only wife of the Prophet).

619, June - Widow Sauda bint Zama became the wife of the Prophet.

619, the end of June - beginning of July –The unsuccessful preaching of the Prophet in Taif.

619, second half - Al-Isra wa-al-Miaradzh (“Isra” - the journey of the Prophet to Jerusalim and and "Mi'raj" – the ascent of the Prophet to the haven to Allah).

620, middle - Aisha was betrothed to the Prophet.

620 - Prophet's first agreement with the inhabitants of Yathrib tribes of Aws and Khazraj in the town of Aqaba at Mecca (calling the Prophet in Yathrib by the representatives of these tribes as an arbitrator over them).

621 - The second Prophet's agreement   with the Yathrib tribes in Aqaba (about transmigration of the Prophet in Yathrib, the negotiations were mediated by the Prophet's uncle Abbas bin Abdalmuttaliba - Ancestral entrenched in power in the Caliphate in 750, the Abbasid dynasty). The election of 12 Prophet's Nakybs from Aws and Khazraj.

622, July 16 - Hijra, i.e. the relocation of the Prophet and his followers-Muhajirun (70 people) in Yathrib, on September 24. Other Muslims migrated to Yathrib during the 622 year. Yathrib tribes became  ansars, i.e. assistants of the Prophet. In 638, the second righteous Caliph Umar bin Sunni al-Khattab al-Farouk kind of Banu-Adiyy family line from the Quraish tribe, took the title "Amir al-muaminin" ("Prince of the believers "), the first day of the Hegira was the beginning of the Muslim chronology.

622 Autumn - The renaming of Yathrib in Madinat-en-Nabi (Medina) - "City of the Prophet."

623 - Prophet's marriage to Aisha.

623, April - The first Muslim's attack on the Meccan caravan on the Prophet's order.

623, the second half of August - The unsuccessful Muslim's attack  Meccan caravan.

623, November – The Prophet proclaimed the Qibla in the direction of Mecca instead of Jerusalem.

624, March 15 - The victory of the Muslims over the Meccans in the battle of Badr well. Rukeyya died during the battle.

624, the second half of March - The Prophet married his daughter Fatima to Ali.

624, July - The Prophet's campaign against Ghatafan tribe.

624, October - Prophet's campaigns in Wadi Zu Amar  against Saalyaba and Buhran Sulayem tribes.

625 - The birth of al-Hasan bin Ali al-Mujtaba (the future second Shia Imam) – Ali's and Fatima's child, the Prophet's grandson.

625, February - Widow Hafsa bint Umar bin al-Khattab became another wife of the Prophet.

625, March - The Prophet married his daughter Umm Kulthum to Uthman.

625, March 23 - The defeat of the Muslims at the Battle of Uhud in Meccans led by Abu Sufyan Sakhr-ben Harb kind of Banu-Abdshams family line from Quraysh tribe, thanks to the tenacity of Khalid bin al-Walid of Banu-Mahzum  family line from Quraysh tribe (came as response for the attack  of Muslims, led by Zayd Meccan caravan in November 624).

625, summer - The struggle of Muslims with the Bedouins in the vicinity of Medina.

626 - The birth of al-Hussein bin Ali al-Shaheed  (the future third Imam of Shiites) – Ali's and Fatima's child, the Prophet's grandson.

626, December - The Prophet's successful campaign against the tribe of the al-Mustaliq (to the well El Mureysi).

627, March - The siege of Medina by the Meccans led by Abu Sufyan ("trench warfare"), the victory of Muslims in the "Battle of the Ditch" (al-Candia). The campaign and the extermination of Quraiza tribe for their treason during the attack of the Meccans.

628, March – The Prophet's campaign to Mecca, the peace treaty with the Meccans in El Hudaibiya concluded through diplomatic talent of Usman (the Prophet was recognized as an independent ruler).

628, May - Abu al-As, who previously fought against his father in law (the Prophet), embraced Islam.

628 spring – The Prophet's message to the rulers of Bahrain, Busra, Byzantium, Yamama, Oman, Persia and Ethiopia, as well as to the Byzantine governors of Alexandria and Damascus.

628 summer – The Prophet's conquest of the Heybar oasis.The submission to the Prophet of the Fadak oasis.

628, September - October –The Prophet's successful campaign against the Wadi al-Qura oasis. The peace treaty with the residents of the Thame.

629, March - Umrat al-kada ("'umrah "- The "minor pilgrimage) of the Prophet. The embracement of Islam by Khalid, who earned the by-name "Sword of Islam" ("Seif al-Islam").

629, August - September - The defeat of the Muslims at Mut, by the gassanidskimian ruler Shurahbeel-bin-Amr (The adopted son of the Prophet Zaid was killed in the battle).

630, January - The Prophet's campaign to Mecca. Abu Sufyan ), embraced Islam. Birth of the Ibrahim, the Prophet's and Egyptian-concubine Mary's son (she was gifted to the Prophet by George, Byzantine viceroy of Egypt in June 628 to the Prophet in reply to his message).

630, January 12 – Muslims took Mecca minor resistance Quraish.

630, mid-January - The destruction of pagan temples in Nakhla, Ruhate and El Mushallale by Prophet's order.

630, the second half of January - Campaign of Khalid against Dzhazima tribe. Prophet rebuked Khalid for atrocities committed in this campaign.

630, January 30 - Battle of Hunayn ( repelling an assault of Bedouin by Muslims).

630, February - The unsuccessful siege of Taif. Conversion to Islam Taif. The conversion to Islam  of the residents through the diplomatic efforts of the Prophet.

630, March 18 - The returnation of the Prophet to Medina.

630, October - December - The Prophet's campaign to the Tabuk  based on false reports of an impending attack on Arabia by  the Byzantines headed by the emperor Heraclius.The Conquest of Dumat Khalid al-Jandal (now - Al Jawf).

631 – The audience of representatives of the Arabian tribes with the expression of humility and willingness to accept Islam.

631 spring - Hajj Abu Bakr. The Prophet's announcement, sent by the hand of Ali, who accompanied Abu Bakr the ultimatum  to the gentiles.

631, June - July - On the order of the Prophet two expeditions to Yemen (Aden, Jabal) were made.

631, July - Ibrahim bin Muhammad died.

632, January - February - Hidzhzhat al-vada ("Farewell Pilgrimage") of the Prophet, accompanied by the thousands of Muslims (the only Hajj of the Prophet, held).

632, June 8 - died in Medina at the hands of Aisha.

PICTURE: Mohammed the Prophet. Artist: Nicholas Roerich. Completion Date: 1925

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